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Tips To Lower Blood Sugar Levels Naturally

High blood sugar levels occur when your body doesn’t make enough or effectively use insulin, the hormone responsible for regulating blood glucose. High blood sugar is associated with diabetes.

Let us help to lower blood sugar levels naturally and effectively with few useful tips

Exercise regularly

Exercise helps to lower blood sugar levels
Regular exercise helps your muscles use glucose for energy and muscle contraction, which will lower your blood sugar levels

Regular exercise doesn’t just help you keep your weight in check, it also increases insulin sensitivity. It also helps your muscles use glucose for energy and muscle contraction, which will lower your overall levels.

Drink water and stay hydrated

Drinking water regularly helps rehydrate the blood, lower blood sugar levels, and could reduce diabetes risk

Keep in mind that water and other non-caloric beverages are best. Sugar-sweetened drinks raise blood glucose, drive weight gain, and increase diabetes risk

Keep an eye on your carb intake

Eating too many carbohydrates can cause blood sugar levels to go up.

Portion control is the best way to monitor your carb intake and therefore reduce blood sugar levels.

There are several ways you can help yourself control portion sizes and stop yourself from overeating: Using smaller plates, checking food labels for serving sizes, and keeping a food journal are all effective ways of reducing portion sizes. Eating slowly is also an established way to reduce the amount you eat.

Fill up on fiber

Fiber is another nutrient you’ll want to keep an eye on for blood sugar management, but in this case, the more the better! It can help stabilize your blood sugars. It also plays a role in weight management and lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease

Vegetables, fruits are high in fiber can help stabilize your blood sugars.
Vegetables, fruits that are high in fiber can help stabilize your blood sugars.

Foods that are high in fiber include:

The recommended daily intake of fiber is about 25 grams for women and 38 grams for men. That’s about 14 grams for every 1,000 calories

Get a handle on stress

Stress can affect your blood sugar levels. When you’re stressed, insulin levels fall, certain hormones rise, and more glucose is released from the liver. Exercises and relaxation methods like yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction may also help correct insulin secretion problems in chronic diabetes

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Reference: CDC US, Center for disease control and prevention, Diabetes Basics

Healthline, 15 Easy Ways to Lower Blood Sugar Levels Naturally

Everyday Health, 10 Tips to Lower Blood Sugar Naturally

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Other articles you may interest in:

  1. 5 Reasons You MUST Moisturize Your Skin
  2. Common Fertility Myths You Should Know 
  3. Food Allergy Vs Food Intolerance: Here’s What Most People Don’t Know
  4. Get A Medical Certificate Online! Why Not?

 

 

 

Featured

5 Reasons You MUST Moisturize Your Skin

Our skin is the body’s largest organ and requires regular attention to stay young, blemish-free and healthy. Daily moisturizing is vital for healthy skin, yet some think of it as an aesthetically-inclined habit. Here is the reason why MaNaDr thinks you must moisturize your skin. 

Moisturizing helps your skin stay young

The most sensitive areas of your skin – the face, ears, neck, and chest – replace themselves more often than any other area on your skin. This daily loss of skin cells leaves these areas vulnerable to dryness and the elements – in fact, they are the highest-risk areas for skin cancer. Moisturizing can help give your sensitive skin the boost it needs to repair itself and stay healthy.

Moisturizing can reduce the appearance of other blemishes

Freshly moisturized skin has a healthy sheen, which can even out any existing blemishes. Some moisturizers have some tint or self-tanner that can work with any skin tone.

Moisturizing reduces the chances of skin problems

Using the right kind of moisturizer for your skin can help maintain its balance. When skin is too dry or too oily, many common skin problems like acne start to pop up. According to dermatologist Dr. Ted Lain, if your skin tends to be oily, you should look for lotions instead of creams, and try to find a moisturizer with exfoliant ingredients. If your skin tends to be dry, look for a cream – they tend to have a higher oil content.

Moisturizing fights wrinkles. 

That plump, firm feeling in your face after moisturizing isn’t an illusion. According to the British Journal of Dermatology, people with properly moisturized skin accumulate wrinkles at just a fraction of the rate of those with dry skin.

It’s the perfect end to a hot shower.

A hot shower feels great and invigorating, but it strips the moisture right out of your skin. Taking just a minute to put on some moisturizer will make sure your skin isn’t only clean, but protected from the stresses of the day and feeling great.

Make sure you’re choosing a moisturizer that works for your skin. Here are some of Manadr’s recommendations:

Yasai Facial Spa cream- natural Spa treatment at home
C E Ferulic 30ML + Skin Ceuticals H.A Intensifier + Skin Ceuticals Hydrating B5
MaNaSkin Daily Moisturising Cream

Other articles you may interest in:

  1. Common Fertility Myths You Should Know 
  2. Food Allergy Vs Food Intolerance: Here’s What Most People Don’t Know 
  3. Get A Medical Certificate Online, Why Not?
Featured

Common Fertility Myths You Should Know

There are a lot of myths related to getting pregnant, and even well-meaning friends and fellow moms can perpetuate misconceptions

Here are some common infertility myths and what you really need to know.

Myth 1: Infertility is almost always a woman’s problem.

Fact: When there’s an identifiable cause of infertility, about half the time men contribute to the problem, according to Resolve, a national infertility organization. Resolve explains that a male factor is responsible in about 35 percent of infertile couples, and male and female factors together contribute to the problem in another 20 percent.

Asian man shouting at his Wife. He thinks that infertility is her problems
Infertility is not always a woman’s problem.

Myth 2: Women don’t start to lose their fertility until their late 30s or early 40s.

Fact: According to a report in the journal Human Reproduction, a woman’s fertility starts to decline at age 27, although this isn’t clinically significant. Most women of this age can still get pregnant, of course, but it might take a few more months of trying. But by the time a woman reaches 35, her chances of getting pregnant during any particular attempt are about half of what they were between the ages of 19 and 26.

Myth 3: Just Relax and You’ll Get Pregnant Right Away.

Fact:  Infertility has to do with your reproductive system, not your nervous system so relaxation alone won’t help anyone become a parent.

Infertile couples should schedule a doctor’s appointment. One or both partners may have a correctable medical condition that stands in the way of conception.

Sad parent complaining holding a pregnancy test
Infertility has to do with your reproductive system, so relaxation alone won’t help anyone become a parent.

Myth 4: A man’s fertility doesn’t change with age.

Fact: While some men can father children into their 80s or 90s, male fertility isn’t age-proof. As reported in Human Reproduction, a man’s fertility usually begins to dip after about age 35. The decline is generally slow and gradual, but it can speed up dramatically if a man develops a condition that hampers sperm production (such as an infection in the genital tract).

Myth 5: People who have been pregnant before won’t face fertility issues

Fertility issues don’t just impact first-timers. Even if a couple already has a child or children, they can experience difficulty in getting pregnant later. This is called secondary infertility.

 

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Reference: HealthDay, Top Infertility Myths

Healthline,  7 Popular Infertility Myths, Debunked by Experts

What To Do If You Are Exposed Or Test Positive For COVID-19

New streamlined protocols take effect from 11 Oct 2021 by the Ministry of Health Singapore. Let’s get an overview of the changes and find out what you need to do if you are exposed or test positive for COVID-19.

Protocol 1: For individuals who are feeling unwell

This info is for individuals who

  • May be experiencing symptoms such as high fever and breathlessness

Immediate actions

  • Keep calm. There is no need to rush to a hospital emergency department to get tested.
  • Visit a Swab And Send Home (SASH) clinic via private transport for a doctor to assess and advise you on your next steps.

What to expect

If you are directed to take a test by the doctor

While waiting for your test result, you should immediately return home and self-isolate in a room, preferably with an attached bathroom, until you receive your result.

  •  If your test result is positive, visit here for information on your recovery procedure. You should expect to receive an Isolation Order (IO) SMS within 48 hours of your positive test result on HealthHub. If you do not receive an SMS within 48 hours, please fill in this form.
  •  If your test result is negative, you can resume normal activities.

Protocol 2 – For individuals who are well but tested positive

This information is for individuals who:

  • Have tested positive but feel physically well.
  • This includes people with mild symptoms such as low fever, cough, runny nose, or sore throat. (As a rule of thumb, if you would normally not see a doctor for such symptoms, then they should be considered mild.)

Immediate actions

  • You should immediately stop going to work and cancel your social activities to protect others from possibly being infected with COVID-19.
  • Stay calm. There is no need to rush to a hospital to get tested. Doing so may expose you to more risk because there may be other infected people there.
  • You should self-isolate for at least 72 hours. This will allow you to safely recover, monitor your health, and avoid spreading the virus further.

What to expectMonitor your health and follow the steps below.

If you are feeling unwell, including having a high fever or experiencing breathlessness, please refer to protocol 1

What to do in the upcoming days

At the end of 72 hours, you should do a self-administered ART.

  •  If the result is negative, you can resume your normal activities.
  •  If the result is positive, continue to self-isolate.

You can stop self-isolation and resume normal activities when you get a negative result.

Protocol 3 – For close contacts of a COVID positive case

This info is for individuals who:

Have received a Health Risk Warning (HRW) via SMS for 7-day monitoring as they have been identified to be close contacts of a COVID positive case, based on TraceTogether / SafeEntry records, or if they are a household member of a COVID positive case.

Immediate action

  • Acknowledge your HRW by clicking on this link.
  • You are legally required to take an ART self-test within 24 hours and self-isolate immediately until you test negative.
  • Submit your result at this link. Only the first ART result needs to be submitted online.

What to expect

Stay home as much as possible. However, if you need to leave your home, you must do an ART self-test once a day before leaving your home during the 7-day HRW period.

  • If you test ART negative, you can leave your home for essential activities such as work or school. Do minimize unnecessary social interactions. You must still complete the 7-day monitoring period.
  • If you test ART positive, please refer to protocol 2

You can collect ART kits from a nearby vending machine, and return home immediately. For locations of these vending machines, click here.

The rest of your household not on HRW are free to carry out their normal activities.

If you develop symptoms, go to a Swab and Send Home (SASH) clinic, where the doctor will assess and advise you on your next steps.

When can you be discharged?

Day 7

Do a final ART self-test. You are not required to submit this ART result online.

  • If you test ART negative, you may resume normal activities.
  • If you test ART positive, please refer to protocol 2

About us

MaNaDr is one of the Telemedicine Providers under the Home Recovery Programme by MOH, Singapore.

If you feel unwell during your home recovery, do consult our Doctors via the app. All these Teleconsultations are fully supported by MOH, Singapore. Teleconsultation will be conducted via “MaNadr For Patient” app

Source: Singapore Ministry of Health

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Cancer: Symptoms, Causes, Stages and Prevention

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. In this article, we will look at how the disease develops, and the useful tips to lower the chance of getting this dangerous disease.

Young women is suffering breast cancer
Breast cancer is the no.1 diagnosed cancer among Singaporean women

What is cancer?

Cancer is a disease in which the body’s cells grow out of the control. Trillions of cells make up the human body. They support the body’s structure, absorb nutrients from food, convert those nutrients into energy, and perform specialized functions.

Normally, human cells grow and multiply to form new cells as the body needs them. Cells die when they become old or damaged, and new cells replace them. Cancer develops when something goes wrong in this process and your cells continue to produce new cells while the old or abnormal ones do not die as they should.

What is the cancer stage?

When a cancer is discovered, tests are performed to determine whether it has spread from its original location. This is referred to as the cancer stage.

A lower stage (such as stage 1 or 2) indicates that it has not spread widely.

A higher number (such as stage 3 or 4) indicates that it has spread further. The fourth stage is the most advanced.

The stage of cancer is critical in determining the best treatment for a person. Inquire with your doctor about the stage and what it means for you.

What causes cancer?

According to the World Health Organization, WHO, cancer develops from the transformation of normal cells into tumor cells in a multi-stage process that generally progresses from a pre-cancerous lesion to a malignant tumor

These changes are the result of a person’s genetic factors interacting with three types of external agents, which include:

  • Physical carcinogens, such as ultraviolet and ionizing radiation;
  • Chemical carcinogens, such as asbestos, components of tobacco smoke, aflatoxin (a food contaminant), and arsenic (a drinking water contaminant); and
  • Biological carcinogens, such as infections from certain viruses, bacteria, or parasites.

Age is also considered a risk factor, as we get older, the risk of mutation increases.

Common cancers in Singapore

According to the Singapore Cancer Society, during the period from 2014 to 2018, an average of 41 people are diagnosed with cancer daily, with 15 people dying from it every day. Although 1 in 4 people may develop this disease in their lifetime. Here are some common cancers among males and females in Singapore:

Top 5 cancers diagnosed in Singapore
In fact, 1 in 4 people in Singapore is expected to develop cancer in their lifetime

Some general symptoms of cancer

It is critical to be aware of the general signs and symptoms of cancer. It can aid in the earlier detection and treatment. Here are some of the most common signs and symptoms to consult your doctor about:

  • Weight loss: Unexplained, significant weight loss (5kg/10lbs over a couple of months) and
  • Fatigue: Feeling extremely tired unexplained
  • A lump anywhere on your body
  • Skin changes on your skin or to an existing mole (such as itching, bleeding, or a change in shape or color)
  • Pain: Especially new or with no known reason, that doesn’t go away or gets worse
  • A change in bowel habit that lasts for three weeks or more: Constipation, diarrhea, and other bowel issues may be a sign of colorectal cancer.
  • Symptoms that refuse to clear up, e.g. a cough or hoarseness that lasts for more than three weeks or a sore that doesn’t heal
  • Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing

If you regularly experience any of the above symptoms, you shouldn’t ignore it.

Prevention

There is no sure way to prevent cancer. But there are some things you can do that might lower your risk of getting it:

Have a healthy diet: Reduce your intake of saturated fat and red meat. Increase your consumption of broccoli, cabbage, kale, watercress, or other cruciferous vegetables and fruits. They protect against DNA damage that can turn cells cancerous.

Get moving: Being physically active is beneficial to your health and aids in maintaining a healthy weight. You don’t have to join a gym; quick walking and carrying heavy shopping bags count.

Cut back on alcohol: If you choose to drink, limit yourself to an average of one drink a day. Excess alcohol increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, liver, and colon.

Maintain a healthy weight: Research has shown that being overweight or having obesity raises a person’s risk of getting endometrial (uterine), breast in postmenopausal women, and colorectal cancers.

Practice safer sex: About 70% of cervical cancers start with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18. To be safe, use a latex condom whenever you have sex.

Vaccination: Infections caused by hepatitis B and the human papilloma virus (HPV) can lead to cancers. Nowadays, vaccines are available for some of these viruses.

Get screenings: Screenings are tests that look for cancer before signs and symptoms develop. These tests can find diseases earlier when treatments are more likely to be successful.

About us

You can arrange a clinic visit online at MaNaDr application to see a doctor if you are showing any symptoms or having any concerns.

Consult a doctor online to get the best treatment

Download ManaDr at:

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Reference: WebMD, Harvard Health Publishing, World Health Organization,

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Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Causes & Prevention

Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in Singapore men. There has been increasing incidence over the last few decades. Let’s learn more about this cancer.

Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland start to grow out of control
Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland start to grow out of control

What is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that develops in a man’s prostate which is a walnut-sized gland located just below the bladder that produces some of the fluid in semen. This cancer grows slowly in most cases and may not cause significant harm. However, some strains are more aggressive and can spread quickly if not treated.

Symptoms

Prostate cancer may have no symptoms in the early stages. Later, symptoms may include:

  • Frequent urination, especially at night
  • Difficulty starting or stopping urination
  • Weak or interrupted urinary stream
  • Painful or burning sensation during urination or ejaculation
  • Blood in urine or semen

It is critical to notify your health care provider if you experience any of these symptoms so that the underlying cause can be identified and treated if necessary.

Causes

Like all types of cancer, the exact cause of prostate cancer isn’t easy to determine. On a basic level, changes in the DNA of a normal prostate cell can cause prostate cancer. DNA is the chemical in our cells that makes up our genes, which control how our cells function. The changes tell the cells to start growing uncontrollably and abnormally. The abnormal cells continue to grow and divide until a tumor develops.

DNA changes can either be inherited from a parent or can be acquired during a person’s lifetime.

Risk Factors

Factors that can increase your risk of getting prostate cancer include:

Age: This cancer is uncommon in men under the age of 40, but the risk increases dramatically after the age of 50.

Race: Black people are more likely than other races to develop prostate cancer for unknown reasons. This cancer is also more likely to be aggressive or advanced in Black people.

Family history: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC USA, people may have an increased risk of getting a type of prostate cancer caused by genetic changes that are inherited if they have more than one first-degree relative (father, son, or brother) who had this cancer, including relatives in three generations on your mother’s or father’s side of the family

Diet: The exact role of diet in prostate cancer is not clear, but several factors have been studied. Men who consume a lot of dairy products appear to have a slightly increased risk of developing this cancer.

A dietary fat, particularly animal fat from red meat, may boost male hormone levels. And this may fuel the growth of cancerous cells.

Obesity: Some studies have also discovered that obese men are at a higher risk of developing advanced prostate cancer and dying from it, but not all studies have found this.

How to prevent Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer, Symptoms, Causes
Prostate cancer, Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

There is no sure way to prevent prostate cancer. But there are some things you can do that might lower your risk of getting this disease:

Exercise regularly: Exercise improves your overall health, aids in weight maintenance, and elevates your mood. Make an effort to exercise for about 30 minutes on most days of the week.

Choose a healthy diet: Eat tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables (like broccoli and cauliflower), soy-based foods, and drink green tea are also potential dietary components that may be helpful.

Try to keep the amount of fat you get from red meat and dairy products to a minimum.

Eat more fish – evidence from several studies suggests that eating fish can help protect against this cancer because it contains “good fat,” particularly omega-3 fatty acids.

Watch your calcium intake:  Do not take supplemental doses far above the recommended daily allowance. Some calcium is OK, but avoid taking more than 1,200 mg per day, following the guidance from the Prostate Cancer Foundation 

Stop smoking: According to a study from Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) and the University of California, San Francisco, researchers suggest that men who smoke are more likely to develop prostate cancer and die from it.

Talk with your doctor: This cancer is a risk for all men as they age, but if it’s caught and treated early, the outlook is generally very good. Therefore, if you’re concerned about your risk of developing it or showing any symptoms, talk with your doctor.

You can use Telemedicine, which is known as consult doctor online, at MaNaDr application, to consult a doctor online without the need to get out of the house.Consult a doctor online to get the best treatment

Download ManaDr at:

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Reference: American Cancer Society,  Mayo Clinic

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Stomach Cancer: Symptoms and Causes

Stomach cancer begins when cancer cells form in the inner lining of your stomach. These cells can grow into a tumor. Also called gastric cancer, the disease usually grows slowly over many years and can affect any part of the stomach. In most of the world, stomach cancers form in the main part of the stomach (stomach body).

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of stomach cancer may include:

  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Feeling bloated after eating
  • Feeling full after eating small amounts of food
  • Heartburn
  • Indigestion
  • Nausea
  • Stomach pain
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Vomiting

stomach cancer

Causes

Scientists don’t know exactly what makes cancer cells start growing in the stomach. But they do know a few things that can raise your risk for the disease. One of them is infection with a common bacteria, H. pylori, which causes ulcers. Inflammation in your gut called gastritis, a certain type of long-lasting anemia called pernicious anemia, and growths in your stomach called polyps also can make you more likely to get cancer.

Other things that seem to play a role in raising the risk include:

  • Smoking
  • Being overweight or obese
  • A diet high in smoked, pickled, or salty foods
  • Stomach surgery for an ulcer
  • Type-A blood
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection
  • Certain genes
  • Working in coal, metal, timber, or rubber industries
  • Exposure to asbestos

stomach cancer

Types of stomach cancer

Adenocarcinomas

Most cancers of the stomach (about 90% to 95%) are adenocarcinomas. These cancers develop from the gland cells in the innermost lining of the stomach (the mucosa).

If you are told you have stomach cancer (or gastric cancer), it will almost always be an adenocarcinoma. The information on the following pages that discusses stomach cancer refers to this type of cancer.

There are 2 main types of stomach adenocarcinomas:

  • The intestinal type tends to have a slightly better prognosis (outlook). The cancer cells are more likely to have certain gene changes that might allow for treatment with targeted drug therapy.
  • The diffuse type tends to grow spread more quickly. It is less common than the intestinal type, and it tends to be harder to treat.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs)

These uncommon tumors start in very early forms of cells in the wall of the stomach called interstitial cells of Cajal. Some GISTs are much more likely than others to grow into other areas or spread to other parts of the body. Although GISTs can start anywhere in the digestive tract, most start in the stomach. For more information, see Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST).

Neuroendocrine tumors (including carcinoids)

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) start in cells in the stomach (or other parts of the digestive tract) that act like nerve cells in some ways and like hormone-making (endocrine) cells in others. Most NETs tend to grow slowly and do not spread to other organs, but some can grow and spread quickly. NETs are discussed in more detail in Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine (Carcinoid) Tumors.

Lymphomas

These cancers start in immune system cells called lymphocytes. Lymphomas usually start in other parts of the body, but some can start in the wall of the stomach. The treatment and outlook for these cancers depend on the type of lymphoma and other factors. For more information, see Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Other cancers

Squamous cell carcinomas, small cell carcinomas, and leiomyosarcomas can also start in the stomach, but these cancers are very rare.

Prevention

You can reduce your risk for stomach cancer by doing these things:

  • Limit the amount of alcohol you drink and do not use tobacco products.
  • Avoid eating smoked and pickled foods and salted meats and fish.
  • Eat fresh fruits and vegetables and plenty of whole-grain foods, such as whole-grain bread, cereals, pasta, and rice.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.

Where to get tested

You can arrange a clinic visit online at MaNaDr application to see a doctor if you are showing any symptoms.

Consult a doctor online to get the best treatment

Download ManaDr at:

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COVID-19: Important Phone Numbers and Links

New streamlined protocols take effect from 11 Oct 2021 by the Ministry of Health Singapore.

Here are the important phone numbers and links you may need if you are under a Home Recovery, or if you have received a Health Risk Warning.

 

For Home Recovery

For medical assistance, contact the GP who conducted your test if the clinic is participating in HRP. Otherwise, you can request a telemedicine provider at this link.

For non-medical assistance, speak to a Home Recovery Buddy (HRB) at 6874 4939

If you do not have an oximeter at home, you may call your Home Recovery Buddy at 6874 4939

You should receive an SMS within 48 hours of your positive test result on HealthHub to inform you of your Isolation Order (IO). If you do not receive an SMS within 48 hours, please fill in this form.

Here are useful links to guide you through the cleaning procedure:

Read more FAQs for Home Recovery at: https://manadr.com/article/home-recovery-manadr

Health Risk Warning (HRW)

MOH will no longer issue Quarantine Orders. Instead, MOH will issue a revised Health Risk Warning (HRW) to close contacts of COVID cases, including their household members

When you receive a HRW, you need to do the following immediate action:

  • Acknowledge your HRW by clicking on this link.
  • You are legally required to take an ART self-test within 24 hours and self-isolate immediately until you test negative.
  • Submit your result at this link. Only the first ART result needs to be submitted online.

People who received a COVID-19 health risk warning (HRW) via SMS can collect antigen rapid test (ART) kits from a nearby vending machine. For locations of these vending machines, click here.

If you develop symptoms, go to a Swab and Send Home (SASH) clinic, where the doctor will assess and advise you on your next steps.

Read more FAQs for Health Risk Warning (HRW) at: https://manadr.com/article/health-risk-warning

For Medical Practitioners that Are Unable to Get Through to the CMTG Hotline.

With a higher number of COVID-positive cases, some clinics may occasionally face difficulties getting through to the CMTG hotline. If your clinic has extended difficulty getting through to the CMTG hotline, you may also email CMTG_Call_centre@moh.gov.sg with:

  • The full details of the patient that requires conveyance (both ART positive and/or COVID-19 PCR positive patients)
  • And the primary contact details of your clinic, as CMTG may need to contact you for further information/ advice

About us

MaNaDr is one of the Telemedicine Providers under Home Recovery Programme by MOH, Singapore.

If you feel unwell during your home recovery, do consult our Doctors via the app. All these Teleconsultations are fully supported by MOH, Singapore. Teleconsultation will be conducted via MaNadr app

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Reference: Singapore Ministry of Health

 

FAQs: For Person Under Quarantine (PUQ) on Home Quarantine Order (HQO)

Persons serving Home Quarantine Order (HQO) are required to isolate at home until the end of their Quarantine Order (QO) period. Before exiting quarantine, they are required to make an appointment at a Regional Swab Centre (RSC) to take a mandatory Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test one to two days before the quarantine end date. If your PCR test is negative, you will receive a rescindment SMS and your QO will end.

Section 1: General Information on your Quarantine Order (QO)

1. What is a Quarantine Order (QO)?

A QO is a legal order under the Infectious Diseases Act (IDA) requiring an individual, who is suspected to be a carrier of an infectious disease or a contact of a confirmed case to be quarantined at a designated place. You are not allowed to go out except to designated centers for your Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests, to prevent the potential spread of the virus to others. It has legal force with severe penalties for non-compliance.

2. Where will I serve my Quarantine Order (QO)?

By default, you will serve your QO at home (HQO).  If your place is unsuitable, you will be quarantined at a dedicated Government Quarantine Facility (GQF). This is based on an assessment of your state of health and suitability of your home for quarantine. MOH will inform you via SMS.

Section 2: Information on Self-Notification for Quarantine (SNQO) of Household Members of a Confirmed COVID-19 Case

1. Are my household contacts required to quarantine if there is a confirmed COVID-19 case in the household?

If you have a confirmed case in your household (who may be under Home Recovery), you will need to declare your status and register as a close contact at https://go.gov.sg/quarantinereg. This portal will require information such as the last date of exposure with the COVID-19 patient and your contact number.

An electronic Quarantine Order (eQO) will be sent to your household to indicate the quarantine period and instructions for self-booking of PCR tests. You should visit this link to schedule your entry and exit PCR swab tests at Regional Screening Centres (RSCs) near your home. You should also collect ART kits at the RSCs, test yourself daily with the ART and upload youir test results at https://go.gov.sg/mohartresults.

Should you feel unwell or be in need of medical attention, you can contact telemedicine services during your quarantine period.

2. How do household contacts register to be quarantined if they do not have a mobile phone and/or are unable to do so online? 

They may seek assistance from their household members to help them register at https://go.gov.sg/quarantinereg.

Section 3: Information for Family/Household Members of PUQs under HQO

1. As a family/household member staying with a PUQ, what restrictions do I need to abide to?

Family/household members who are caregivers to PUQ, or family/household members receiving care from a PUQ are required to sign a Stay Order. You will not be allowed to leave the home. If the PUQ later tests positive for COVID-19, please refer to Section 2 on self-notification for Quarantine of Household Members of a Confirmed COVID-19 case.

quarantine

Section 4: Information on PCR and ART Testing

1. I’m a person under HQO. What tests am I required to undergo?

You are required to undergo an entry PCR and ART swab test at the start of your 10-day HQO and an exit PCR swab test at the end of the QO.

In addition, all PUQs are required to test themselves daily with the Antigen Rapid Test (ART) kits during their quarantine period, as well as 4 days (Days 11-14) after their quarantine period has ended.

2. Why do I need to take swab tests? Is it mandatory?

Yes, swab tests are mandatory for all Persons Under Quarantine (PUQ). Typically, there will be two PCR tests: (i) an entry PCR swab test at the start of the QO period for early detection of infection, and (ii) an exit PCR swab test before the QO ends to prevent potential transmission should you be infected.

The swab tests are mandatory under the Infectious Diseases Act (IDA) to ensure that PUQs are tested negative before their QO ends.

3. Why is there a need for two types of swab test (PCR and ART) for PUQs?

To prevent new infections, the double swab testing is to enable early detection of the disease among asymptomatic cases. The ART is able to earlier detect new infections earlier and reduce the risk of spreading to others.

4. Who will pay for the cost of the testing regime?

MOH will bear the cost for all tests related to HQO.

Section 5: Information on Exit Swab for PUQs under HQO

1. I am a Person under Quarantine (PUQ). Can I opt for an ART self-test in place of my PCR exit test?

No. While the ART provides a quick and easy way for persons to get self-tested in their own homes, the test results are still less accurate as compared to a PCR test. Hence, persons under quarantine are required to take a PCR exit test to prevent infecting others.

2. Can my family members accompany me to the RSC?

MOH does not advise non-PUQ family members to accompany the PUQs to the RSC. PUQs are to minimize contact with family/household members. If you have mobility difficulties and require assistance, please call the MOH hotline at 6710 4022 (operating hours: 09:00 am to 09:00 pm) for alternative arrangements.

3. If I am unwell, do I still proceed to the RSC?

If you are unwell before, or on the day of your PCR swab test appointment, please do not proceed with your swab appointment. Call the MOH hotline at 6710 4022 (operating hours: 09:00 am to 09:00 pm) for medical attention and alternative arrangements, if applicable.

4. Can I opt to go to any other clinic to get swabbed?

No, you are only allowed to go to the RSC stated in your appointment notice for your PCR exit test.

5. I am unable to travel to the Regional Screening Centre (RSC) for my PCR exit test appointment. Can I opt to get tested at home?

In some situations (e.g. persons with disabilities), MOH may arrange for the PCR exit swab to be done at home. Please call the MOH hotline at 67104022 (operating hours: 09:00hrs to 21:00hrs) at least 3 days before your quarantine end date to make the request

6. When will I get my swab test results? How will I get the result?

If you have a SingPass account*, you may log in to the HealthHub page (https://eservices.healthhub.sg/Covid/Records) to access your test results, the test results will usually be available within one to two days of your swab test.

*Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents, Passholders (Employment Pass, EntrePass, S-Pass, Dependent Pass, Long Term Visit Pass Plus), and selected Work Permit Holders are eligible for SingPass. Please refer to this link for SingPass instructions: https://www.singpass.gov.sg/singpass/register/instructions.

7. When / how will my quarantine order end?

Your Quarantine Order (QO) will be lifted when you receive a rescindment SMS message from MOH.

8. What are the arrangements for my child to receive his/her PCR swab tests?

For infants below 3 years, arrangements will be made for their PCR swab tests. Children between 4 to 12 years will receive their PCR swab tests at their quarantine locations. For children 13 years and above, they can register online at https://go.gov.sg/qoswab and proceed to an RSC for their PCR swab tests.

About us

MaNaDr is one of the Telemedicine Providers under Home Recovery Programme by MOH, Singapore.

If you feel unwell during your home recovery, do consult our Doctors via the app. All these Teleconsultations are free and fully supported by MOH, Singapore. Teleconsultation will be conducted via MaNadr app

Source: Singapore Ministry of Health

Other articles you might interest in:

FAQs about Home Recovery

[With effect from 10 Oct 2021]

Home Recovery

General Information on Home Recovery

Who is eligible for Home Recovery?

This information is for individuals who:

  • Have tested positive for COVID-19 via a PCR test
  • Are placed on Home Recovery Programme (HRP) by default.
  • Have indicated no severe medical conditions when they filled up the form in their Isolation Order (IO) SMS.

From Oct 10, HRP is the default care arrangement for everyone, except for the following:

  • Partially or unvaccinated individuals aged 50 years and older;
  • Vaccinated persons 80 years and older;
  • Children aged less than 1 year, and children aged 1 to 4 years who have been assessed to be clinically unsuitable for home recovery.

For elderly aged 70-79, they are only on Home Recovery by default from 16 Oct

If you are not eligible for HRP, you will receive a call from MOH to schedule your transfer to an appropriate care facility.

If you are not suitable for Home Recovery but wish to be on the programme, you may put in an appeal by calling 6874 4939.

Home Recovery

During Home Recovery

How will MOH check that I am isolated at home?

You will receive phone calls or location verification requests from the MOH monitoring team during your isolation period. For the safety of your household contacts and community, please strictly adhere to the Isolation Order.

How will my health be monitored during my home recovery?

You will be assigned a dedicated telemedicine provider or a participating GP  who will help in your home recovery journey. Telemedicine supports are available 24/7. 

Guidance timeline

DAY 1

Receive Isolation Order (IO) via SMS

  • Eligible Individuals will be on the Home Recovery Programme (HRP) by default. Your IO SMS will inform you if you are on the programme or not.
  • All COVID positive cases have to fill in a mandatory form linked in the SMS to,
  • Nominate your household contacts for a Health Risk Warning (HRW) and provide personal details and medical history

From your form response, if you do not meet certain criteria you may be taken out of HRP

DAY 2 – 9 

Receive a call from Home Recovery Buddy (HRB) for onboarding to HRP

No proactive call from Telemed Doctor. Instead, individuals should only call if necessary

Remain isolated

Minimize contact with your household members and do not leave your house for any purpose

Monitor your daily health

It is recommended to take note of your temperature, pulse rate, and blood oxygen saturation level every day

Noted: There is no need to report your readings online

Any medical issues?

Request a telemedical consultation from a telemedicine provider or a participating GP.

Any non-medical issues?

Speak to a Home Recovery Buddy (HRB) at 6874 4939.

Noted: No day 6 PCR test 

DAY 10-14

For fully vaccinated individuals, and children aged 12 years and below:

  • You will automatically be discharged on Day 10. No PCR test is required.
  • A discharge memo will be issued to you via SMS on the same day.

For partially vaccinated/ unvaccinated individuals above 12 years old:

  • You will automatically be discharged on Day 14. No PCR test is required.
  • A discharge memo will be issued to you via SMS on the same day.

HQO

I am on Home Recovery but I have not received a care pack. Who should I contact?

A care pack is only delivered to you if you do not have an oximeter at home. The most important item is the oximeter, which you will need to monitor the oxygen saturation level in your blood.

If you do not have an oximeter at home, you may call your Home Recovery Buddy at 6874 4939

What symptoms should I seek medical supports for during Home Recovery?

If you experience any of these symptoms, contact a telemedicine provider or a participating GP.

  • Fever
  • Acute respiratory symptoms such as cough, sore throat, runny nose, headache
  • Muscle ache or tiredness
  • Diarrhea
  • If you have an oximeter, an SpO2 reading that stays in the range of 93% to 94% while you are at rest.

If you experience any of these symptoms, call 995 immediately:

  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Chest pains or pressures on your chest
  • Palpitations (if your heart is beating very fast or pounding)
  • If you have an oximeter, an SpO2 reading that stays below 92% despite multiple readings taken while you are at rest

Home Recovery

After Home Recovery

What to do after getting discharged?

After discharge, you can resume normal activities. Do continue to observe safe management measures.

If you feel unwell after discharge, you may visit any GP clinic of your choice.

You can show the end date of your original Isolation Order SMS as proof of recovery. If you have received a discharge memo, that can also be used as proof of recovery.

Please disinfect your room after you’re discharged. Here are useful links to guide you through the cleaning procedure:

About household members

A household member of mine is undergoing Home Recovery. Do I need to self-isolate?

If a member of your household is on Home Recovery, they will need to register you and your household members as close contacts.
Your household members will receive a Health Risk Warning (HRW).

Besides myself, my household members are also on the Home Recovery Programme (HRP). Can we be on the HRP together?

Yes, you and your household members can be on the Home Recovery Programme (HRP) together. However, those on HRP should isolate themselves from those who are not on HRP.

How should my household members manage daily necessities during my Home Recovery?

Your household members should try to order food or groceries that can be delivered to your home. To collect purchases from your main door, put on a mask and ensure there is no one outside before opening the main door.

Your household members should also handle items with these simple steps:
Always ensure no one is within the vicinity.
Put on a surgical mask.
Minimize contact with used items or bag them to prevent direct contact with used items.
Wash used items with soap and water immediately.
Double-bag trash securely to prevent leakage and dispose of them into the rubbish chute immediately.
Wash your hands thoroughly with soap after handling items from your household member who is recovering from COVID-19

About us

MaNaDr is one of the Telemedicine Providers under the Home Recovery Programme by MOH, Singapore.

If you feel unwell during your home recovery, do consult our Doctors via the app. All these Teleconsultations are fully supported by MOH, Singapore. Teleconsultation will be conducted via “MaNadr For Patient” app

Source: Singapore Ministry of Health

Other articles you might interest in:

FAQs about Health Risk Warning (HRW)

[With effect from 11 Oct 2021]

MOH will no longer issue Quarantine Orders. Instead, MOH will issue a revised Health Risk Warning (HRW) to close contacts of COVID cases, including their household members

important links and phone numbers

General Information on Health Risk Warning 

Who will receive a Health Risk Warning?

If you have been identified to be close contacts of a COVID positive case, based on TraceTogether / SafeEntry records, or if you are a household member of a COVID positive case, you will receive a Health Risk Warning (HRW) via SMS. 

How does MOH determine if someone is a close contact with a confirmed case?

MOH conducts contact tracing to identify people who have been in contact with the confirmed case.
A close contact is defined as someone who has spent 15 minutes or more within 2 metres of the infected individual.
Besides the duration and proximity of exposure, MOH also considers the nature and setting of exposure, type of personal protective equipment donned, and other clinical and epidemiological factors when assessing if follow up actions are required for the close contacts.
Identified close contacts will be advised by MOH officials on the measures they should take

How can I tell if the HRW notification is not a scam?

If you are placed on Health Risk Warning (HRW), you will receive an SMS on the mobile number registered to your TraceTogether App or Token.
The SMS notification should indicate the last 4 digits of your identification number.

I’ve been to an affected area, but didn’t receive a Health Risk Warning (HRW) notification. Should I be concerned?

Although you have been to an affected area, you may not be at risk of infection as you might not have visited it at the same time as the COVID-19 case(s).
Nonetheless, we would advise you to monitor your health closely for 7 days from your last visit to the location.

I received a Health Risk Warning (HRW) via SMS. Can I claim compensation for the time lost at work due to self-isolation?

You cannot claim compensation for the time spent under Health Risk Warning (HRW)

I received a Health Risk Warning (HRW) via SMS, but I have a COVID-19 vaccination appointment soon. Can I still go for it?

You received a Health Risk Warning (HRW) SMS as you are a close contact to a COVID-19 case, or living with someone who is under Home Recovery.
Should you need to leave your home over the next 7 days, e.g. for vaccination, you will need to take an Antigen Rapid Test (ART) self-test and test negative before you can leave.

Under Health Risk Warning

Guidance Timeline

DAY 1

When you receive a HRW, you need to do the following immediate action:

  • Acknowledge your HRW by clicking on this link.
  • You are legally required to take an ART self-test within 24 hours and self-isolate immediately until you test negative.
  • Submit your result at this link. Only the first ART result needs to be submitted online.

DAY 2 – 6

Stay home as much as possible

If you need to leave your house, you must do an ART self-test once per day before leaving your home

  • If your test ART is negative: You can leave your house for the essential activity. Take another ART test the next day you need to leave the house. You should still complete the 7-day monitoring period
  • If you test ART positive, please refer to this page.If you feel unwell at any point, please refer to this page

You can collect ART kits from a nearby vending machine, and return home immediately. For locations of these vending machines, click here.

The rest of your household not on HRW are free to carry out their normal activities.

If you develop symptoms, go to a Swab and Send Home (SASH) clinic, where the doctor will assess and advise you on your next steps.

DAY 7

Do a final ART self-test. You are not required to submit this ART result online.

  • If you test ART negative, you may resume normal activities.
  • If you test ART positive, please refer to this page.

If you feel unwell, please refer to this page.

Can I go out to buy food, see a doctor, or go to work or school?

You received a Health Risk Warning (HRW) SMS as you are a close contact to a COVID-19 case, or living with someone who is under Home Recovery. Should you need to leave your home over the next 7 days, you will need to take an ART self-test and test negative before you leave.

Where can I collect the ART self-test kits from the vending machines?

You can collect the ART self-test kits from vending machines in these venues.

Please bring along your Singapore-issued identification document, e.g. NRIC/FIN, student pass, birth certificate with a barcode, as you will need to scan it at the vending machine.

If a household member is collecting on your behalf, please ask them to bring along your identification document.

About household members

A member of my household tested positive on the Antigen Rapid Test (ART). What should I do?

Minimise contact with the household member.
Take an Antigen Rapid Test (ART) self-test.
Stay home as much as possible. Should you need to leave your home over the next 7 days, e.g. for work or to school, take an ART self-test on the same day:
  • If negative: you may leave your home.
  • If positive: follow the instructions here

About us

MaNaDr is one of the Telemedicine Providers under Home Recovery Programme by MOH, Singapore.

If you feel unwell during your home recovery, do consult our Doctors via the app. All these Teleconsultations are fully supported by MOH, Singapore. Teleconsultation will be conducted via MaNadr app

Source: Singapore Ministry of Health

Other articles you might interest in:

FAQs about Health Risk Alert (HRA)

If you have had a possible exposure to a COVID-19 case, you will receive a Health Risk Alert (HRA) via SMS.
Source: Singapore Ministry of Health

1. What should you do if you receive a Health Risk Alert (HRA) SMS

  • Days 1, 3, 5 from last exposure: Perform a self-test using an Antigen Rapid Test (ART) kit to determine if you are infected. If you do not have ART kits at home, you may collect them using your NRIC/FIN at the venues listed here. Please submit your ART results here or at https://go.gov.sg/hrw-hra-art
  • Please monitor your health and seek medical attention if unwell within the period of HRA
  • You are also strongly encouraged to come forward for a free swab test. Please click here for more details on how to get tested.

2. I have been to an affected area. Why didn’t I receive an HRW or HRA notification?

Although you have been to the affected location, it does not necessarily mean that you are at risk of infection as the period of your visit might not have overlapped with that of the COVID-19 case(s), according to SafeEntry records.

Nonetheless, we would advise you to monitor your health closely for 14 days from your last date of visit to the location. Please see a doctor immediately if you begin to feel unwell

3. How can I tell if the HRW or HRA notification is not a scam?

If you are placed under HRW or HRA, you will receive an SMS notification on the mobile phone that is registered to your TraceTogether App or TraceTogether Token. The notification should indicate the last 4 digits of your identification number

4. I received an HRA notification. Can I opt to get tested?

We strongly encourage you to get tested. Simply buy an Antigen Rapid Test (ART) self-test kit from a retail pharmacy and self-administer the test.

5. I didn’t receive an HRW or HRA notification. Can I still get tested?

We encourage anyone who is keen to get tested. Simply buy an Antigen Rapid Test (ART) self-test kit from a retail pharmacy and self-administer the test.

ART Test Results

What to do if your self-test result is positive:

  • Call the nearest SASH clinic listed on phpc.gov.sg to make an appointment. Check that they can provide a confirmatory PCR test.
  • Take a photo of your ART test result(s) with your identification document (ID) in the same photo immediately.
  • Put the used test kit into a plastic bag, seal it and dispose of it properly and wash your hands.
  • Bring (1) the photo of your results + ID together and (2) your physical ID (NRIC/Passport) to the clinic.
  • Travel to the clinic via private transport (car or taxi).
  • Sit alone in the back seat and on the opposite side of the driver. Wind down the windows (switch off air-conditioning) and wear a surgical mask throughout the ride.
  • If you ride a motorcycle, please ensure that you do not have a pillion rider. If you require a taxi, please do not take a street-hire taxi. Instead, book a taxi through:

    Taxi hotlines: Inform the operator that you are going for a PCR test at a SASH clinic

    Mobile apps of transport companies: Input “SHN” in the comment box or check the “SHN” checkbox (if available).

  • At the clinic, if your doctor informs you that you need a consultation, e.g. because of observed symptoms such as runny nose, mild fever, you have to comply with your doctor’s instructions.
  • After the confirmatory PCR test, please go home immediately via private transport (same arrangements as above), and self-isolate at home until you receive your negative PCR test results
    If you are unable to self-isolate at home, please inform your clinic before the swab.
  • Your doctor will generally inform you of your results within 24 to 48 hours. Alternatively, you may check your results via HealthHub

About us

MaNaDr is one of the Telemedicine Providers under Home Recovery Programme by MOH, Singapore.

If you feel unwell during your home recovery, do consult our Doctors via the app. All these Teleconsultations are free and fully supported by MOH, Singapore. Teleconsultation will be conducted via MaNadr app

Source: Singapore Ministry of Health

Other articles you might interest in:

 

 

Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: Symptoms, Causes & Prevention

According to statistics from the Singapore Cancer Society, colorectal cancer is the top diagnosed cancer in Singapore – no.1 in men and no.2 in women.

What is Colorectal Cancer?

Colorectal cancer is cancer of the colon (the main part of the large intestine) or the rectum (the passageway connecting the colon to the anus). Sometimes it is called colon cancer, for short.

 

Colorectal cancer is cancer of the colon or the rectum
The colon is the large intestine or large bowel. The rectum is the passageway that connects the colon to the anus. Photo: CDC

Colon Cancer symptoms

Colorectal cancer does not always cause symptoms, particularly in the early stages. Someone may have colorectal cancer and be unaware of it.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, signs and symptoms of colon cancer may include:

  • A change in bowel habits.
  • Blood in or on your stool (bowel movement).
  • Diarrhea, constipation, or feeling that the bowel does not empty all the way.
  • Abdominal pain, aches, or cramps that don’t go away.
  • Losing weight and you don’t know why.

Consult a doctor if you experience any of these symptoms. They could be the result of something other than cancer. Seeing your doctor is the only way to find out what’s causing them.

What causes Colorectal Cancer?

The exact causes are unknown, but colon cancer has several potential risk factors:

Polyps in the colon or rectum

The majority of colorectal cancers begin as a growth on the lining of the colon or rectum. These growths are called polyps. Some polyps can develop into cancer over time (usually many years), but not all polyps do.

There are 3 different types of polyps, according to the American Cancer Society

  • Adenomatous polyps (adenomas): These polyps sometimes change into cancer. Because of this, adenomas are called pre-cancerous conditions. The 3 types of adenomas are tubular, villous, and tubulovillous.
  • Hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps: These polyps are more common, but in general they are not pre-cancerous. Some people with large (more than 1cm) hyperplastic polyps might need colorectal cancer screening with colonoscopy more often.
  • Sessile serrated polyps (SSP) and traditional serrated adenomas (TSA): These polyps are often treated like adenomas because they have a higher risk of colorectal cancer.

Having an inherited syndrome

A person might inherit a genetic predisposition toward colon cancer from close relatives, especially if a family member received a diagnosis before the age of 60 years old.

Traits, habits, and diet

Age is a significant risk factor for colon cancer, a majority of people with colon cancer are older than 50. However, the rates of colon cancer in people younger than 50 have been increasing

Lifestyle factors that may increase the risk of colorectal cancer include:

  • Inactivity on a regular basis.
  • A diet is deficient in fruits and vegetables.
  • A high-fat, low-fiber diet, or a diet high in processed meats.
  • Obesity and being overweight
  • The use of alcohol.
  • Tobacco consumption.
Getting regular physical activity may help lower your risk of getting colon cancer
Getting regular physical activity may help lower your risk of getting colon cancer

Underlying condition

  • Having type 2 diabetes
  • Inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.
  • having undergone radiation therapy for other cancers

How to reduce the  risk of getting  Colorectal Cancer

There are 6 effective ways you can do to help lower your risk:

Take control of your weightBeing overweight or obese increases your risk of getting and dying from the colon or rectal cancer. Eating healthier and increasing your physical activity can help you control your weight.

Get regular exerciseIf you are not physically active, you may have a greater chance of developing colorectal cancer. Being more active may help reduce your risk.

Drink less alcoholAlcohol use has been linked with a higher risk of colorectal cancer. It is best to not drink alcohol. But if you drink, limit yourself to not more than two standard drinks a day:

One standard drink is roughly equal to:

  • One can of beer (285ml)
  • One glass of wine (120ml)
  • One measure of liquor (30ml)

Eat lots of vegetables, fruits, and whole grainsDiets that include lots of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains have been linked with a decreased risk of colon or rectal cancer. Also, eat less red meat (beef, pork, or lamb) and processed meats (hot dogs and some luncheon meats), which have been linked with an increased risk of colorectal cancer.

Don’t smokePeople who have been smoking for a long time are more likely than people who don’t smoke to develop and die from colon or rectal cancer

Get screened for colorectal cancer: Screenings are tests that look for cancer before signs and symptoms develop. These tests can find colon or rectal cancer earlier when treatments are more likely to be successful.

Where to get tested

You can arrange a clinic visit online at MaNaDr application to see a doctor if you are showing any symptoms.

Consult a doctor online to get the best treatment

Download ManaDr at:

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Reference: Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Colorectal (Colon) Cancer

American Society, About Colorectal Cancer

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