Asperger’s syndrome is a communication and socializing problem that affects people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Obsessive interests, formal speech, rituals, social isolation, motor skill delays, a lack of inventiveness, and sensory issues are signs of Asperger’s syndrome. Teaching tactics and therapies can help patients have a better life.

Asperger's syndrome

What is Asperger’s syndrome?

Asperger’s syndrome, a neurological condition, is one type of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. It affects language and communication abilities, as well as repetitive or limited thinking and behavior.

What causes Asperger’s syndrome?

Genes

Genes can be one of the factors contributing to the possibility of having Asperger’s syndrome. Although no one has identified any genes as the origin of Asperger’s, the illness does seem to run in families.

Asperger’s syndrome, sometimes known as “high-functioning” autism, tent to be even more familial than autism at other locations on the spectrum. Even if they haven’t been diagnosed, family members of Asperger’s patients are more likely to exhibit behavioral characteristics comparable to those found in autism.

Additionally, the development of hereditary diseases such as Fragile X syndrome and Rett syndrome contribute to this illness. The most well-known single-gene condition is Fragile X syndrome, which accounts for around 2% to 3% of all autism spectrum disorders.

Environmental factors

Many specialists feel that environmental factors are to blame for Asperger’s syndrome. Some studies have speculated that certain difficulties during pregnancy may raise the probability of a baby having an autism spectrum condition. These include:

  • Difficult to childbirth
  • Chemical exposure during pregnancy, such as phthalates or pesticides
  • Taking antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, or Terbulin (terbutaline)
  • Air pollution exposure during pregnancy
  • Diabetes during pregnancy
  • Obesity
  • High blood pressure
  • Infections caused by viruses and bacteria

Biological factors

Biological and brain changes are frequently associated with autism, in addition to heredity and environmental effects.

Autistic children’s brains show anomalies in the following areas: cerebellum, temporal and prefrontal cortexes, hippocampus, amygdala

In patients with Asperger’s syndrome, differences in the concentration of certain neurotransmitters responsible for maintaining signal transmission in the brain have also been discovered.

Symptoms of Asperger’s syndrome

People with Asperger’s syndrome suffer from a wide range of symptoms. Meanwhile, poor social interactions, obsessions, strange speech patterns, restricted facial expressions, and other unique characteristics are common in children with Asperger’s Syndrome. Other signs of this condition include:

  • Difficulty in a social situation: They may experience isolation or little interaction, poor eye contact, have trouble showing empathy, managing emotions, or articulating sentiments, prefer a rigorous regimen or timetable, and get inappropriate conduct or strange habits.
  • Language issues: Asperger’s does not usually result in a speech delay. Patients do, however, have distinct linguistic characteristics. Individuals with Asperger’s syndrome often have a large vocabulary and excellent grammatical abilities, but they may struggle to utilize language effectively in social contexts. A kid with Asperger’s syndrome may have an odd speaking style. They may use a loud voice and speak in a monotonous or rhythmic style.
  • Unusual cognitive behaviors: Children with Asperger’s syndrome may have difficulty concentrating or may have a nonverbal learning deficit that affects their reading, writing, or math skills. Nevertheless, many people are cognitively normal.
  • Physical problems: Asperger’s syndrome causes children to look clumsy or awkward. Simple tasks like catching a ball or swinging on monkey bars at a playground may be difficult for them. However, some children do not experience any motor skill issues.

Asperger's syndrome

Complications

Asperger’s syndrome has a number of drawbacks. It might be an underlying illness that causes additional functional issues, or it could be complications caused by AS symptoms.

Sensory difficulties

Some patients can experience sensory sensitivity which means their senses are either overdeveloped or deficient. Noise, bright lights, strong odors, food textures, and materials may all affect them.

Social issues

When a person’s capacity to understand body language, emotions, and speech is impaired, it can be difficult to connect with others. This can have a detrimental impact on education, employment, social life, and family life.

Other

Other illnesses such as depression, anxiety associated with social isolation, or other obstacles may develop with AS. Medical issues, including immunological diseases, gastrointestinal and sleep disorders, seizures, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes, pose a higher threat to autistic persons.

How to diagnose Asperger’s syndrome?

Several common evaluation exams are accessible to assess behavior, linguistic skills, mental health, and personality. Some are particularly developed for youngsters, while others are geared for adults.

Another method is genetic testing which physicians can use to determine if a person’s symptoms are caused by gene mutations or other genetic illnesses. In addition, hearing, speech, language, physical, and neurological testing are all performed to examine someone with Asperger’s syndrome. At newborn and toddler well-check visits, most primary care doctors and pediatricians evaluate children for autism spectrum disorders.

Treatments

Medications

Asperger’s condition is not treatable with medication. The majority of medications are used to treat Asperger’s syndrome-related anxiety, despair, or difficulty focusing. Certain drugs can aid in the management of severe Asperger’s symptoms or disorders. Among these drugs are:

  • Antidepressants (SSRIs or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors).
  • Anti-psychotics.
  • Drugs for attention-deficit disorder.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy

Patients will learn how to function socially and manage their emotions via cognitive behavior therapy which instructs how to control impulses, worries, anxieties, obsessions, interrupting, and tantrums. Every person’s situation is unique, depending on their requirements.

Speech therapy

Speech and language therapy can assist the individual in learning how to initiate and maintain a conversation. Learning how to employ tone of voice in inquiries, affirmations, arguments, and orders, as well as how to react appropriately to verbal and nonverbal clues, are all part of this process.

Occupational therapy

An occupational therapist will allow people with Asperger’s syndrome to improve their fine motor skills. Moreover, they can assist your youngster with sensory difficulties. Certain sensory stimuli may be too much for someone with Asperger’s syndrome. Your kid’s therapist will also focus on hand-eye coordination and teach your youngster proper feeding techniques.

Asperger's syndrome

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